Power Factor explained in the engineering is one of the famous words which mentioned in electrical engineering. Today we are going to discuss more about the power factor and the details of it.In electrical engineering power factor is the cosine angle in between current and the voltage in alternative current circuit.So all the effects of power factor is only matters in alternative current equipment’s not in direct current devices.
What is Power Factor and How Its Got Effect
In Alternative current circuit is more on inductive, so the current axis’s lags behind the voltage angle and this known as lagging power factor.In capacities circuit the current axis leads above the voltage angle so this type of power factor known as leading power factor.
What is Low Power Factor?
Most of low power factor occur in system happened due to inductive load. Any system cannot find the power factor value of 1 which means the angle between the voltage and current is 0.Normally optimum value of Power Factor explained are 0.9 and 0.8. But due to some undesirable conditions the value of power factors getting low and there are so many economical and technical disadvantages happens due to this act.
So now we understood what power factor is about? Unfortunately low power factor is not a good phenomenon in electrical engineering and there are so many disadvantages occur due to the value of power factor getting low.
Disadvantages of Power Factor explained
The higher current due to lower power factor affects the following disadvantages on the system.
When the value of power factor getting smaller in equipment the KVA rating of its getting bigger. So there re more kVA ratings equipment must be made for same application and creating larger KVA equipment also make huge cost also.
In transmission and distribution lines the conductor size also need to create large due to the effect of low power factor so the cost of conductor also getting higher
Apart of mentioned economical disadvantages technical losses can also occurs such as low voltage regulations, handling capacity of the electrical system get reduce and copper loss get maximized.
To get rid of these disadvantages low power factor effects several methods and equipment introduces in electrical engineering industry.
Rating of generators and transformers are proportional to their output current, Hence inversely proportional to power factor, there for large generators and transformers are required to deliver same load but at low power factor.
For the same power to be transmitted but at low power factor, the transmission line cable has to carry more current. The size of the conductor will have to be increased if current density in the line is to be kept constant. Thus more conductor material is required for transmission line.
How to Improve Power Factor in System
In electrical engineering there are three famous methods use to reduce the effect of low power factor. These methods improve the value of power factor so this is also good for the system stability also. Following are the three methods which use for improve power factor in system.
Use Synchronous Condenser:
Synchronous condenser is a kind of synchronous motor which use to lead the current angle so this equipment also work like a capacitor.
Another mechanism use to improve power factor especially on induction motor.
Connecting a capacitor in parallel with the lagging power factor equipment can improve the power factor effectively and this is the most common power factor improvement method used in electrical engineering.
Effect of Power Factor explained in electrical system cannot make in to zero but this can get minimized by improving power factor.
There are so many analysis and methods use to measure and analysis the effect of power factor in to electrical system .
We are plan to discuss further regarding the effect of power factor in to electrical engineering deeper in near future.